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Key People:Richard StallmanKenneth Lane ThompsonDennis M. Ritchie...(Show more)Related Topics:computer programming languageprocedural language...(Show more)

C, computer programming language developed in the early 1970s by American computer scientist Dennis M. Ritchie at Bell Laboratories (formerly AT&T Bell Laboratories). C was designed as a minimalist language khổng lồ be used in writing operating systems for minicomputers, such as the DEC PDP 7, which had very limited memories compared with the mainframe computers of the period. The language was devised during 1969–73, alongside the early development of the UNIX operating system. It was based on CPL (Combined Programming Language), which had been first condensed into the B programming language—a stripped-down computer programming language—created in 1969–70 by Ken Thompson, an American computer scientist và a colleague of Ritchie. Ritchie subsequently rewrote & restored features from CPL lớn create C and eventually rewrote the UNIX operating system in the new language.

As the UNIX system was enhanced, a series of changes took place in C between 1977 and 1979. During this time a mô tả tìm kiếm of the language became widely available through a book, The C Programming Language (1978), by Brian W. Kernighan và Ritchie. In the mid-1980s it became important to lớn establish an official standard for C, since it was being used in projects subject to lớn commercial và government contracts. In 1983 the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) set up a committee that further amended and standardized the language. Since then C has been referred lớn as ANSI Standard C, và it remains popular in the world of UNIX-like operating systems. C also became one of the most common programming languages used for writing other system software và applications. Descendants of C include Concurrent C, Objective C, C*, C#, & the widely used C++. The programming language Java was introduced in 1994 as a simplified subset of C for deployment over the Internet and for use in portable devices with limited memory or limited processing capabilities.


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The Editors of Encyclopaedia versionmusic.netThis article was most recently revised and updated by Erik Gregersen.